© Roman Jocher


Pawel Machcewicz , Dr.

Professor of History

Polnische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Warschau

Born in 1966 in Warsaw
Studied History at the University of Warsaw


Retributive Justice after World War II and the Fall of Dictatorial Regimes in Europe, Latin America, and South Africa: a Comparative Approach

The goal of the project is to create a comparative approach to various ways in which European, Latin American, and the Republic of South Africa's states and societies came to terms with legacies of crimes committed during WW II and the reign of dictatorial regimes in the second half of the 20th century.
The project will address one of the central issues that states and nations confront in transitional periods after the end of wars or the collapse of dictatorships. This problem usually becomes fundamental in the initial phases of post-war or post-authoritarian reconstruction. However, in some countries it gains political and social importance in delayed ways, a long time after the conclusion of war or occupation (e.g. France and the legacy of the Vichy regime) or after the collapse of dictatorial regimes (Spain and the legacy of the Franco regime and of the Civil War of 1936-39; Poland with the most intense public interest and institutional arrangements starting approximately ten years after the collapse of Communism). One of the most important questions that should be addressed in the project is the impact of legal and political retribution (or its absence) on the consolidation of new, emerging regimes. A widespread intellectual approach suggests that retribution (e.g. spontaneous or legal, institutional purges) is detrimental and dysfunctional for the consolidation of democratic regimes that replace dictatorships or for the prospects of social integration and peace of societies torn by wartime conflicts. On the other hand, there are examples in which the absence of retribution leads to widespread feelings of frustration and anger, which can give birth to radical movements that become serious challenges to democratic systems.
Another pivotal issue that the project will address is a wide variety of legal (or extra-legal) and institutional mechanisms of coming to terms with the legacies of political crimes and the difficult wartime or dictatorial past. In some instances, these were post-war purges (spontaneous or institutional), like in France or Italy after WW II. In other countries (Latin America, South Africa), the truth commissions sought to reveal crimes committed by past dictatorial regimes. In Poland and some other post-Communist countries, special institutions were created (e.g. the Polish Institute of National Remembrance) that attempt to provide a complex approach to the past: opening the archives and so-called lustration, research and education, and the legal prosecution of political crimes. A vital aim of the project will be a comparison of the merits and defects of the specific ways of coming to terms with the past chosen in various countries.

Recommended Reading

Machcewicz, Pawel, Edmund Dmitrów and Tomasz Szarota. Der Beginn der Vernichtung: zum Mord an den Juden in Jedwabne und Umgebung im Sommer 1941; neue Forschungsergebnisse polnischer Historiker. Osnabrück: fibre, 2004.
Machcewicz, Pawel. Rebellious Satellite: Poland 1956. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center, 2009.
-. Poland's War on Radio Free Europe, 1950-1989. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center, 2014.

Publikationen aus der Fellowbibliothek

Machcewicz, Pawel ( 2016)
Representing violence and death in the Museum of the Second World War in Gdańsk

Machcewicz, Pawel ( Gdańsk, 2016)
Museum of the Second World War : catalogue of the permanent exhibition

Machcewicz, Pawel ( 2015)
La Pologne au cœur de l'Europe, de 1914 à nos jours. Histoire politique et conflits de mémoire, Georges Mink, Paris : Puchet-Chastel, 2015

Machcewicz, Pawel ( 2015)
Droga do Norymbergi : geneza sądowych rozliczeń ze zbrodniami III Rzeszy

Machcewicz, Pawel ( Washington, D.C., 2014)
Poland's war on Radio Free Europe, 1950-1989 Monachijska menażeria

Machcewicz, Pawel ( 2012)
The Institute of National Remembrance and the legacy of communism in Poland

Machcewicz, Pawel ( 2011)
Reviewed work: Rebellious satellite : Poland, 1956, by Paweł Machcewicz, Maya Latynski and James G. Hershberg

Machcewicz, Pawel ( Washington, DC, 2009)
Rebellious satellite : Poland 1956 Polski rok 1956 <engl.>

Machcewicz, Pawel ( 2005)
The Institute of National Remembrance and coming to terms with a difficult past : World War II and the communist dictatorship

Machcewicz, Pawel ( 1997)
Intellectuals and mass movements : the study of political dissent in Poland in 1956


Historical Politics and New Nationalism in Contemporary Europe



Museum of the Second World War in Gdańsk: A Battlefield of History and Politics



Museum of the Second World War in Gdansk


Dienstagskolloquium - Arbeitsbericht19.06.2018

Dienstagskolloquium - Arbeitsbericht, Tuesday Colloquium - Work in Progress