Community Ecology - Conceptual Development, Current Standing, Future Prospects
Community ecology is one of the classical subdivisions of ecological science. Its initial task was largely the description and classification of plant communities. From the mid-1960s on, several simple and powerful hypotheses proposed to explain the diversity of species and their key controlling processes in local communities. Hence, the scientific status of community ecology rose; however, it remained more heterogeneous than other subdisciplines, possibly because community ecology originated from distinct research lines that lacked a unified conceptual framework. Moreover, several controversies split researchers, at a time when ecology became increasingly engaged in addressing large-scale environmental and conservation problems. In the 21st century, other adjoining or emerging disciplines, such as biodiversity science, landscape ecology, and macroecology, are raising new questions about the present status of community ecology as a component of the evolving ecological sciences.
I propose to examine the development of community ecology since the 1970s, with two initial sets of questions. First, as it matured in the 20th century, did community ecology approach integration, converging on a common set of concepts and questions? Second, are new scientific fields nowadays cutting into its original domain; or, conversely, is community ecology expanding its domain of enquiry by incorporating novel questions?
I intend to probe these questions through a selective overview of the literature, spanning both conceptual debates and actual research practice. This approach involves the recognition of research programs and how they develop over time. Further foci are several recent proposals to unify community ecology or to integrate it with other subdisciplines. In the end, I hope to produce a workable map of an evolving field of enquiry, without pontificating on its formal status. By focusing chiefly on research practices, this should be relevant and useful to ecologists and the challenges they face, as well as to practitioners engaged in applying this knowledge to policy and management problems.
An additional curiosity involves surveying graphical representations of ecological communities and how these change in form, content, and choice of symbols.
Lewinsohn, T. M., V. Novotny, and Y. Basset (2005). "Insects on plants: diversity of herbivore assemblages revisited." Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 36: 597-620.
Lewinsohn, T. M., P. I. Prado, P. Jordano, J. Bascompte, and J. M. Olesen (2006). "Structure in plant-animal interaction assemblages." Oikos 113: 174-184.
Lewinsohn, T. M., J. Kollmann, W. W. Weisser et al. (2015). "Ecological literacy and beyond: problem-based learning for future professionals." AMBIO 44: 154-162.
Publications from the Fellows' Library
Lewinsohn, Thomas M. (
Insects on plants : diversity of herbivore assemblages revisited
Lewinsohn, Thomas M. (
How many species are there in Brazil?