Futility and Transcendence: a Study of Kant's Philosophy
We often read that the "critical philosophy" was Kant's successful attempt to mediate between the rationalism of Leibniz and Wolff and the empiricism of Locke. But this was not exactly how he conceived his own project. In his Prolegomena to any Future Metaphysics, Kant said that his aim was the recovery and application, in purified form, of the "transcendental ideas", which, he says, "if they do not positively instruct us, nevertheless remove the crude and reason-limiting doctrines of materialism, naturalism, and fatalism, and thereby to bring the ideas of morality out of the realm of speculation."
Kant was responding in this regard to the challenges posed by the new human sciences of the 18th century that treated human beings as a species of animal, distinguished by language use, intelligence, and dexterity, but not by the possession of immortal souls and a special relationship to God. From the scientific standpoint, religious ideas were belief systems with social and psychological import, and morality a set of conventions that recognised and accommodated or corrected emotions such as gratitude, esteem, and resentment. Kant was well versed in the theories of the naturalist (and materialist) of Comte de Buffon, in the religious scepticism of Hume, and in the "sentimentalist" ethics of Francis Hutcheson and Adam Smith. Worried that their views undermined morality and political hope, Kant's response was to insist on retaining God, the soul, and a future life as "regulative" thought objects and the purposive and improving universe as more than a regulative idea. As a foundational move, he put matter and causality in their place by relativising the Newtonian world system to the human conceptual apparatus and by distinguishing sharply between the human being as studied in anthropology and psychology and the human being as studied by philosophy.
Contemporary philosophy has been affected by Kant's critical undertaking in ways that represent losses as well as gains. My aim is to broaden the interpretive context to provide a more accurate and indeed more interesting picture of the purpose and meaning of his three great Critiques and their aftereffects.
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